How to Resize an Image with JavaScript

In a document-scanning web app, image resizing is useful as it can correct the proportion of scanned documents and increase the DPI of document images to meet printing requirements.

In this article, we are going to talk about how to resize an image with JavaScript. One way is using Canvas and the other is using Dynamic Web TWAIN, a document-scanning SDK.

Build an HTML5 Page to Resize Images

Create a new HTML5 page with the following template and then let’s add the image resizing function to it.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
  <title>Resize an Image with JavaScript</title>
  <style>
  </style>
</head>
<body>
  <div class="home">
    <h2>Rotate an Image</h2>
    <button id="resizeButton">Resize</button>
  </div>
  <script>
  </script>
</body>
</html>

Set Desired Resolution

  1. Add two input elements for specifying the resolution and a checkbox to enable keeping the aspect.

    HTML:

    <style>
    input[type=number] {
      max-width: 50px;
    }
    </style>
    <label>
      Width:
      <input type="number" onfocus="this.oldvalue = this.value;" id="widthInput">
    </label>
    <label>
      Height:
      <input type="number" onfocus="this.oldvalue = this.value;" id="heightInput">
    </label>
    <label>
      Keep aspect:
      <input type="checkbox" id="keepAspectCheckbox">
    </label>
    

    JavaScript:

    let widthInput = document.getElementById("widthInput");
    let heightInput = document.getElementById("heightInput");
       
    widthInput.addEventListener("change",function(e){
      if (document.getElementById("keepAspectCheckbox").checked) {
        syncSize(widthInput.oldvalue,heightInput.oldvalue,widthInput.value,undefined);
      }
      this.oldvalue = this.value;
    })
    
    heightInput.addEventListener("change",function(e){
      if (document.getElementById("keepAspectCheckbox").checked) {
        syncSize(widthInput.oldvalue,heightInput.oldvalue,undefined,heightInput.value);
      }
      this.oldvalue = this.value;
    })
    
    function syncSize(oldWidth, oldHeight, newWidth, newHeight){
      if (oldWidth && oldHeight) {
        const ratio = parseInt(oldWidth)/parseInt(oldHeight);
        if (newWidth) {
          newHeight = newWidth/ratio;
          heightInput.value = parseInt(newHeight);
          heightInput.oldvalue = heightInput.value;
        }else if (newHeight) {
          newWidth = newHeight * ratio;
          widthInput.value = parseInt(newWidth);
          widthInput.oldvalue = widthInput.value;
        }
      }
    }
    
  2. Add a select element to use preset resolutions.

    Documents usually have a fixed size like A4 (8.268 x 11.693 in) and ID Card (3.375 x 2.125 in). We can calculate the resolutions based on different DPIs and add them as presets. For example, the resolution for an A4 document in 300 DPI should be 8.268 * 300 x 11.693 * 300 = 2480 x 3508.

    HTML:

    <label>
      Preset resolutions:
      <select id="presetSelect">
        <option value="2480x3508">A4 300 DPI</option>
        <option value="1654x2339">A4 200 DPI</option>
        <option value="827x1169">A4 100 DPI</option>
        <option value="1013x638">ID Card 300 DPI</option>
        <option value="676x425">ID Card 200 DPI</option>
        <option value="338x213">ID Card 100 DPI</option>
      </select>
    </label>
    

    JavaScript:

    document.getElementById("presetSelect").selectedIndex = -1;
    document.getElementById("presetSelect").addEventListener("change",async function(e){
      usePreset();
    })
    function usePreset(){
      let presetSelect = document.getElementById("presetSelect");
      if (presetSelect.selectedIndex != -1) {
        let selectedOption = presetSelect.selectedOptions[0];
        widthInput.value = selectedOption.value.split("x")[0];
        heightInput.value = selectedOption.value.split("x")[1];
        presetSelect.selectedIndex = -1;
      }
    }
    

Load an Image File

Add an input element for selecting files and use a button element to trigger it. The image file will be loaded into two image elements, one for displaying the resized result and one for storing the original image.

Fill the width and height inputs with the image’s original values.

HTML:

<button id="loadFileButton">Load a File</button>
<input style="display:none;" type="file" id="file" onchange="loadImageFromFile();" accept=".jpg,.jpeg,.png,.bmp" />
<div class="imageContainer">
  <img id="image"/>
  <img id="imageHidden"/>
</div>
<style>
  .imageContainer {
    overflow: auto;
  }

  #imageHidden {
    display: none;
  }
</style>

JavaScript:

function loadImageFromFile(){
  let fileInput = document.getElementById("file");
  let files = fileInput.files;
  if (files.length == 0) {
    return;
  }
  let file = files[0];
  fileReader = new FileReader();
  fileReader.onload = function(e){
    document.getElementById("image").src = e.target.result;
    document.getElementById("imageHidden").onload = function(){
      widthInput.value = document.getElementById("imageHidden").naturalWidth;
      heightInput.value = document.getElementById("imageHidden").naturalHeight;
      widthInput.oldvalue = widthInput.value;
      heightInput.oldvalue = heightInput.value;
    }
    document.getElementById("imageHidden").src = e.target.result;
  };
  fileReader.onerror = function () {
    console.warn('oops, something went wrong.');
  };
  fileReader.readAsDataURL(file);
}

Resize an Image with Canvas

  1. Add a canvas element to the document.

    <style>
    #canvasHidden {
      display: none;
    }
    </style>
    <canvas id="canvasHidden"></canvas>
    
  2. Set the canvas’s size according to the resolution specified.

    const canvas = document.getElementById("canvasHidden");
    canvas.width = widthInput.value;
    canvas.height = heightInput.value;
    
  3. Get the context of the canvas to perform actions.

    const ctx = canvas.getContext("2d");
    
  4. Draw the image onto the canvas.

    const imageHidden = document.getElementById("imageHidden");
    ctx.drawImage(imageHidden, 0, 0, imageHidden.naturalWidth, imageHidden.naturalHeight,0,0,canvas.width,canvas.height);
    
  5. Display the resized image.

    image.src = canvas.toDataURL();
    

Resize an Image with Dynamic Web TWAIN

Dynamic Web TWAIN is a document scanning SDK making it possible to scan documents in the browser. It provides various image processing methods. We can use its ChangeImageSize method to resize an image.

The advantage of using it is that it can be used to batch process a large volume of images as the processing is done using a native process.

Here are the steps to use it:

  1. Include Dynamic Web TWAIN in the page.

    <script src="https://unpkg.com/dwt@18.4.2/dist/dynamsoft.webtwain.min.js"></script>
    
  2. Initialize an instance of Web TWAIN and use it to resize the image. You can apply for its license here.

    let DWObject;
    Dynamsoft.DWT.AutoLoad = false;
    Dynamsoft.DWT.ProductKey = "DLS2eyJoYW5kc2hha2VDb2RlIjoiMjAwMDAxLTE2NDk4Mjk3OTI2MzUiLCJvcmdhbml6YXRpb25JRCI6IjIwMDAwMSIsInNlc3Npb25QYXNzd29yZCI6IndTcGR6Vm05WDJrcEQ5YUoifQ=="; //one-day trial
    Dynamsoft.DWT.ResourcesPath = "https://unpkg.com/dwt@18.4.2/dist";
       
    async function resizeImageWithWebTWAIN(){
      if (!DWObject) {
        await initDWT();
      }
      DWObject.RemoveAllImages();
      let file = document.getElementById("file").files[0];
      let buffer = await file.arrayBuffer();
      DWObject.LoadImageFromBinary(buffer,
      function(){
        const method = document.getElementById("interpolationMethodSelect").selectedOptions[0].value;
        DWObject.ChangeImageSize(0,widthInput.value,heightInput.value,method,
        function(){
          document.getElementById("image").src = DWObject.GetImageURL(0);
        },
        function(errorCode, errorString){
          console.log(errorString);
        });
      },
      function(errorCode, errorString){
        console.log(errorString);
      })
    }
       
    function initDWT(){
      return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
        const title = document.querySelector("h2").innerText;
        document.querySelector("h2").innerText = "Loading Dynamic Web TWAIN...";
        Dynamsoft.DWT.CreateDWTObjectEx(
        {
          WebTwainId: 'dwtcontrol'
        },
        function(obj) {
          DWObject = obj;
          document.querySelector("h2").innerText = title;
          resolve();
        },
        function(err) {
          console.log(err);
          document.querySelector("h2").innerText = "Failed to load Dynamic Web TWAIN";
          reject(err);
        }
      );
      })
    }
    
  3. New pixels have to be added during resizing which is called interpolation. Dynamic Web TWAIN provides several algorithms to do this.

    A select element is added for this.

    <div class="dwtcontrols">
      <label>
        Interpolation Method:
        <select id="interpolationMethodSelect">
          <option value="1">Nearest Neighbour</option>
          <option value="2">Bilinear</option>
          <option value="3">Bicubic</option>
          <option value="5" selected>Best Quality</option>
        </select>
      </label>
    </div>
    

What You Should Know About Dynamic Web TWAIN

Source Code

You can find all the code and an online demo in the following repo:

https://github.com/tony-xlh/Resize-Image-JavaScript